Ottoman Bombard Model. Bronze Pour. Fail.
This project was put aside when I broke some ribs unloading the melting furnace which I had borrowed. Each of the 2 halves of the bombard weighed about 8 tonnes in the original, and in my model will weigh about 8 kg each.
These 8 kg parts will be the biggest which I have attempted to cast.
I am using the lost PLA method, having 3D printed the parts in PLA.
Today I attached the PLA breech to a PLA pouring funnel (also 3D printed), and poured the investment medium around the part in a 5″ steel cylinder.
In order to minimise the possibility of air bubbles sticking to surfaces and corners, I painted the entire model with investment, before positioning it in the casting cylinder, and filling it with investment slurry. It will set overnight, and I will commence the burnout in the morning.
Fingers crossed for the pour late tomorrow afternoon.
It is now the next evening. I am despondent.
I woke early, and when I arrived at the workshop at 7:30am turned on the potters oven, and placed the cylinder containing the PLA model and investment medium inside. (Problem #1.) The cylinder was too big to sit vertically or horizontally, so I placed it diagonally. It was awkward, and I was concerned that the bore piece, being supported only at one end, might break free. It did. (Problem #2.) Started the burnout cycle at 250ºc, slowly increasing to 750ºc over 8 hours.
While that was happening I set up the melting furnace, gas cylinders (3 of them), tongs, bucket of water, face masks, gloves, aluminised apron, etc outside. It was going to be a warm day. Unfortunately it was also windy. Not ideal.
Stuart arrived, and he checked his furnace. We lit it to pre warm the furnace and crucible. (Problem #3.) The crucible fitted in the furnace, with little space to spare. Just enough for the crucible with its tongs to fit. Stuart commented that it looked very big. It was, I answered “a 14kg crucible”. When the 12kg of bronze eventually melted it only half filled the crucible. It was not the size which I had ordered. It was too big, and restricted the gas flame, reducing its effectiveness. The melting phase required 3 hours! Much too long. (Problem #4.) (PPS. note added 23 Dec. I checked the dimensions of the crucible. It is a 30kg crucible!!! No wonder it was too big for the furnace! I had ordered and paid for a 14kg crucible. No wonder it was too big for the furnace. I should have checked before using it.)
Then it appeared that the flame was not as fierce as Stuart expected. The gas was piped from 2 cylinders, and one was not icing up as expected. It was close to full. Why was the gas not coming through? Could there be a ball valve somewhere in the system? Later we discovered that the pipe from that cylinder worked in only one direction because there was indeed a hidden one way valve. There was no direction arrow. (Problem #5.)
So, when we did get to the pour, and discovered the central core broken free (#1),
I inverted the now red hot cylinder to shake the core free. I calculated that the bore would fill with bronze and need drilling later. But would there be enough molten bronze to fill the cavity? I had allowed 1.5-2kg extra bronze to cope with unexpected contingencies but this would be cutting things fine.
So, we did the pour. There was a LOT of slag, possibly due to the slow melt. The molten bronze seemed to pour OK, and it filled the mold and the central bore. But it stopped about 3 cm from the top. Bummer!. Not enough bronze. Oh well. A learning experience.
And worst of all….
It is only half the weight of the cannon, and it is just too bloody heavy!
I could fix the mistakes, reprint the part, and recast it.
But, you know what? I am not going to. The biggest issue is that even if I am able to fix all of the problems, and get a good result, it will be too heavy to move around. It will be too heavy to use even as a door stop. Hmm. Maybe I will clean up the failure and use it as a heavy door stop. Either that, or cut it up and reuse the bronze in the next casting projects, which will be much smaller!
This will be another failed, abandoned project to add to the list. (Chess pieces, etc). Oh well. Live and learn.
(it does cause me to appreciate the Ottoman cannon makers of 1465 who cast these parts with wood fires, where each component weighed over 8 tonnes!)
Nice try John. Interesting blog. Don’t give up on it learn from it and give it another go. Ian
Thanks Ian. Now that I realise how heavy the full model would be I am not inclined to make it in bronze. lots learned. but my equipment is not adequate for such a big casting. John
Having had the privilege of physically seeing / handling this, (I was going to say comedy of errors) epic attempted casting that failed. I applaud your attempt and patience in creating the detailed PLA pattern.
Shame the casting gods were not on your side tho. Even going to a 5th scale which I know won’t match your other canon builds it would still be a heavy blighter.
1:10, but I have decided not to repeat the exercise, even learning from my mistakes. John
John, A very interesting post, I was great to see the result of the pour and actually feel the weight in this component of what would have been a very heavy model.
It really gets one thinking of the methods and techniques that must have been used in the 1400″s for the actual Bombard cannon and the 1500″s for the Tsar’s cannon which came in at around 35 ton.
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